The date of the Mahabharata is already fixed as years B. Here only Yajurveda is mentioned, Sukla Yajurveda is nol mentioned. Krsna Yajurveda is also not mentioned. That shows the antiquity of the Ramayana over Sukla Yajurvda which is composed around years B. Salapatha Brahmana which is a part of Sukla Yajurveda is also nol mentioned by Vaimiki.
The date of Satapatha is fixed by the Late Mr. Dixit as years B. So the Ramayana must be more ancient than years B. I say so because there is a reference to Yajurveda in the Ramayana but which Yajurveda. Sukla or Krsna is not clarified showing the non-existence of these two versions, at the time of Vaimiki. Ganapati is not praised even at the beginning of Ramayana because there was no such tradition which started from the Mahabharata era. So the Ramayana is more antique than years B.
The custom of Sandhya, Homa and Havana being done by ladies is from Rgveda. From the Mahabharata till today no servant has dared to oppose the queen. So the Ramayana appears to be more ancient than the Mahabharata. There was no post of Purohita at the time of Mahabharata. It was an ancient tradition. Chitraratha Gandharva tells Yudhisthira about this ancient tradition and advises him to appoint one Purohita. Mahabharata Adi , This shows the antiquity of the Ramayana over the Mahabharata. Hanuman and other Vanaras 41 42 requested Tara, after the death of Vali, to govern. Vasistha suggested that Seeta should be coronated in place of Rama Draupadi or Kunti never went to war.
But Ramayana describes Kaikeyi going to war with Dasaratha as his driver and also saved Dasaratha on the battle field, for three nights. Rgveda also narrates women going to wars such as Vispala or Sachi Vrsakapi Sukta Namuchi sent his female army against Indra This shows that Ramayana people were very close to Rgveda people.
This indicates that drinking wine was not taken as a bad thing in both the times, suggesting the Rgveda and the Ramayana eras as close together. Probably in ancient era liqueur drinking was common among both the men and women. But as its bad effects were observed in due course, liqueur was held as a vice and women refrained from the liqueur.
In the Mahabharata era, men like Krsna and Arjuna were shown drinking alcohol but Draupadi and Satyabhama were not drinking alcohol. This shows that Ramayana is much more ancient than the Mahabharata. Hence Ramayana is more ancient. Leave aside Sati tradition because the tradition during Ramayana era was to remarry with a brother-in-lgw or any other person. Rama suggested Seeta to stay with Bharata Ayodhya 26, 24 to 26 , 44 or with any other person.
Yuddha 1 15, 11 , Ruma and Tara actually behaved like that. The remarriage tradition is more ancient than the Mahabharata. It is a tradition of the Rgveda So the Ramayana is almost contemporary to Rgveda. The Rgveda period stretches from about B. This is a simple translation which shows the Sun between Kfttika and Bharani on 22 nd December.
Calculations with the rate of precession of equinoxes as 72 years per degree or years per Naksatra show the exact date of this verse as years B. So Taittiriya Samhita is of years B. Naturally, as Taittiriya Branch is mentioned in the Ramayana, Ramayana appears to be later than years B. Now we have arrived at a conclusion that Ramayana is before the M ah a b ha rata i.
So Ramayana period is from years B. Let us now see the evidences from the Ramayana to calculate the exact period. Internal evidences 1 Pusya Naksatra is given much prominence in the Ramayana. The importance of Pusya Naksatra is seen at 1 , , , , , The repeated mention of Pusya though it is not at all a bright constellation suggests that Pusya was highly esteemed then. The probable reason for this importance is that the Vernal Equinox was at Pusya then, the date being to years B.
During Ramayana, il was in Swati. The precession has an anticlockwise direction, so we have to count in reverse direction from mid-Swali to Ardra. Il comes to The rate of precession is 72 years per degree. Thus the new year used to start with thie Rainy season during Ramayana. The Rgveda suggests that the New Year used to start with the rainy season. Hence the year is called as 'Varsa' in relation to Varsa, the rainy season. The Tamil literature shows that in ancient times Hags were hoisted on the New Year day and prayers offered that sufficient rains be showered with lightning, producing streams of water every- where.
Lightning and showers usually are seen in the beginning st of the rainy season at the Summer Solstice 21 June. This bold statement is controversial to my thought expressed above in 2. But I say that this bold statement is a later correction, interpolation and quite unfit in the stream of Ramayana. If we accept that the onset of rainy season was in Sravana, the period of Ramayana will come to about years B. But so many evidences above are not showing that period.
So let us see if this bold statement is correct or not. Kiskindha 30 and 33 state that Rama rested for four months of the rainy season from Sravana to Kartika. Kartika was already over and 6arad was also nearing its end when Rama got angry. Hanumana also says that Sarad was nearing its end K. Kiskindha Sarga 53, Slokas 15,17,18,21,22 stale that after one month from fO the departure of Vanaras they could see the signs of Spring.
How could there be spring in Magha - only in two months after the cessation of the rainy season? Kiskindha 21, 22 state that Vanaras launched the campaign after the end of Asvina i. From Lanka Hanumana came back to Kiskindha, Rama went to Lanka and fought the war and then returned to Ayodhya in the month of Chaitra If rains started in Sravana, Chaitra should be in the Spring. Thus, all the events from Hanumana's first visit to Lanka to the return of Rama to Ayodhya, come in Spring. There is one more serious problem. Seeta was abducted in Hemanta 56 Aranya 16 and she was given a time limit of one year only 61 to surrender to Ravana.
She had told this fact to Hanumana to convey to Rama. They would have seen Seeta dead or seduced. But it was not the fact.
She was alive and she was pure. So she must have been released in Hemanta. If Sravana was the beginning of the rainy season, Chaitra should be in Spring, but and 42 state that it was cold season, Sisira in Chaitra when Rama returned '. Vasanta to 6isira wound up only in one month? It shows that 6ravana was not the beginning of rainy season. I s2 The word is not considered by the scholars and so were misguided. Bhadrapada Lunar month was of the beginning of showers and so was of the premonsoon. Thus all the descriptions point to the premonsoon in the Bhadrapada Lunar month.
Premonsoon is the period before 21 June. It is natural that 21 June jor the Summer Solstice coincided with Asvina Pournima usually; but due to the shortness of Lunar year than the Solar year by From all these considerations, it is clear that rainy season did not start in Sravana.
Let us now reconsider these riddles using Rtus. Rama approached Kiskindha in Vasanta. He killed Vali in Greesma. Varsa, the rainy season was spent by Rama in Kiskindha 50 Hanumana went out and returned in Sarad. Then hurriedly Rama went to Lanka, fought the war and released Seeta in Hemata. Rama had set out for Forest-life Vanavasa in Chaitra 6 ' , so he must have returned after completion of fourteen years Yudh in Chaitra. It was the spiritual power of Bharadvaja which produced the signs of Spring Yudh It was Chaitra in Hemanta so trees had shed their leaves Yudh 65 Next month i.
Thus it is seen that Vaisakha Masa coincided with Sisira. From Asvini back to Mula there are ten Naksatras. The rate of precession which is anticlockwise is years per Naksatra. Therefore for a shift of ten Naksatras years must have been passed. So Ramayana must have taken place years ago, i. But this is an absolutely wrong notion. Lunar months do not constitute the Rtus. Rgvcda knew that the Sun is responsible for the formation of Rtus. Therefore they formulated solar-seasonal months which are recorded in the Tailtiriya Samhita Rtus depend on the Sun while the Lunar months depend on the Moon and there is a difference in the number of days of the Solar year and the Lunar year.
The Solar year consists of Therefore the seasons slide back on the Lunar months. This discrepancy is corrected by taking one Adhimasa in every third year. This method corrected the discrepancy for a few centuries but when the Sun precesses. Vasanta Rtu has two Masas, Madhu and Madhava. Vasanta Sampata or the Vernal Equinox is fixed at 21st March every year. The calendar months are the solar months and are therefore fixed just like Arkaja Masas. Madhava Masa coincides with 22 March lo 21 April. Sukra means 22 April to 21 May.
Suchi is 22 May lo 20 June. Nabhasya extends from 22 July to 21 August. Urja extends from 23 September lo 22 October. Tapasya extends from 22 Jan. This arrangement of Arkaja Masas and the modern scientific calendar months will never change. If at all some change occurs then the Vernal Equinox will again be adjusted on the 21st March and new calendar will come in vogue.
Now I present a table here to show the seasons, Rtus according to the modern scientific calendar as well as the Lunar months during the Ramayana period. There would have been a sliding back of ten days' period every year till the third year when one Adhimasa was taken to readjust the Lunar months with the Rtus. Margasirsa 15 to Magha 1 5 5 Hemanta 23 rd Oct. Magha 1 5 - Chaitra 1 5 6 Sisira. Now-a-days all these constellations are seen together in Summer, but Rama had seen these in winter during Phalguna to Jyestha Masas. This change in the sky can occur only in a period of at least ten thousand years.
So the Ramayana must have been written years ago. Pusya is a faintly visible Naksatra and canTe recognised only if it comes above the head. If Pusya is above the head Asvini must be at the western horizon at the sunset suggesting Hemanta in Phalguna and Chaitra Masas. This shows the period between to years B. The Date of the Ramayana o31 6 Mars and Aldebaran: The simile of Yuddha is very vivid. Valmiki writes that Ravana had imprisoned Seeta just like Mars imprisons Rohini. This simile is very appropriate beeause the eonstellation of Aldebaran is V-shaped and it appears like a gate.
If Mars comes between the two limbs of V, it appears that Mars is standing like a guard at the gate. This must have been the position of Mars and Aldebaran while Ramayana was being written. In Yuddha or , Valmiki writes that irate Ravana rushed towards Seeta just like Mars rushed towards 72 Aldebaran It is possible that in those ancient days around years ago, such a phenomenon was visible in the sky.
Mars being a planet moves fast and if observed daily its movement towards Aldebaran can be seen easily. As Valmiki has used this simile Valmiki must have seen this movement, and hence he must have existed at least years ago. When Maruti first saw Seeta in Lanka, Valmiki states that poor Seeta appeared just like Rohini harassed by the Mars 68 Sundar Kanda describes Seeta as Rohini grasped 69 by a cruel planet Mars Sundar describes Seeta with a simile that she appeared like Rohini troubled by a reddish planet u 70 Mars.
Yuddha 1 13 or 1 describes that Seeta appeared like 71 Rohini afflicted by a cruel planet Mars. Yuddha 92 or describes Seeta like Rohini bound by a planet, 32b The Scientific Dating of the Ramayana and the Vedas Yuddha describes that Ravana held Seela like Rohini is held by a planet in the sky. Saturn had bisected Rohini at years B. Dixit - History of Indian Astronomy. At that time there was end of Dwapara Yuga. Prior to this was Trela Yuga which ended with bisection of Aldebaran by Mars. My friend and astronomer Mr. Modak has done calculations for me.
He states that around years before Christ in the month of August or September Mars was in Taurus at 14 degrees and 32 minutes. The sun at that time was in Virgo at 25 10'. Epsilon Tori is at 2 35' south while Aldebaran is at 5 28'south. About years B. Mars may reach 5 53'south. Hence the description given by Valmiki appears true. I request here other astronomers to calculate this and let me know the result. Harivansa 15 gives 23 generations from Rama to Brhadbala while Shrimad Bhagawata gives 30 generations.
Some names are different so we can say that both have not given the full list. The Ramayana Gorakhpur Edition mentions Devarata to be the son of Nimi but to 6 gives five generations between the two. Nimi is actually the 77 twelfth generation of Ikswaku but is mentioned as the son.
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These are the two evidences to show that all generations arc not mentioned in the list. Hence a list of 30 kings must be corrected and taken to be of 45 kings. For Indian kings in the past, 40 years was the average span of life. Actual generation appears to be about 36 years if we take into account known 60 Indian kings from various dynasties who ruled for years. For example in Pala dynasty of Bengal 10 kings ruled from lo A. In Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri 6 kings ruled from to 1 A.
Mughal dynasty in Delhi ruled for years from Babar A. Six kings in years means Royal dynasties in India have a longer -average life because they were peaceful in general and Indian people also were peaceful. A son killing his father to get the throne or a brother killing his elder brother- the king, never happened in India.
In India there were Bhismas and Bharatas who did not ascend the throne, keeping it reserved for the elder brother. Rajarama, the son of Sivaji the great, kept the throne vacant for his nephew Sahu, Such noble acts are not seen in the Western or Muslim countries.
Hence their average should not be applied in India. The average age of ordinary generation is about 25 years because when a son is born, a new generation begins. But we should not take 25 years for royal generation because the name of a prince is included in the genealogy only if he ascends to the throne. If a father has a long life his son may not get his throne and the grand son may come in the list of kings. For example, Sagara the 40 lh king in Iksvaku dynasty did not give his throne to his son Asamanja but coronated his grand son Ansumana.
Thus royal dynasties have an average span longer than 25 years. Both were disciples of Hiranyanabha according to Visnupurana. Dixit has proved its period to be years B. So Krti was at years B. So there are 49 generations between Krti and Secradhvaja. Here again it is quite possible that all the kings are not included, so we will lake that approximately generations were present between the two kings. Janakas were not aggresive kings and they avoided wars, so their life span should be a little higher.
We will take it as 45 years. So Ramayana time comes to years B. Thus all these 25 evidences indicate that the Ramayana must have occured and was written at about years B. Valmiki states in Sundar 35 that Rama 78 had four Molar teeth in each jaw. Dental science accepts that due to evolution the jaws of human beings are becoming smaller and the number of Molar teeth is reducing from three to two.
So the evidence of four Molars suggests that Rama would have existed 10, years ago. Orthodox scholars hold that Ramayana is eight lacs years old because Ramayana happened in Treta Yuga. According to Yuga concept Dwapara Yuga consisted of 8 lacs and 64 thousand years. At the end of Treta Yuga Rama was incarnated. Only five thousand and some odd years of Kali Yuga have passed so far. So they think that Rama was ruling this Earth 8 lacs and 69 thousand years ago. There is no doubt that Ramayana is written in Treta Yuga because it has never referred to Dwapara Yuga.
No event from Dwapara and Kali Yuga is mentioned in the Ramayana. Krta Yuga is often mentioned e. Modern thinkers always pooh-pooh this idea of 8 iaes years antiquity. Personally I also do not approve of this rnueh antiquity. But in my deep study I found one evidence which shows that much antiquity. It is presented here. Bala Kanda, Sarga 5, Sloka 39, stales "Himalaya and Vindhya are the two mountains almost equal in height and are looking towards each other" " 4 It is true that they can see each other because there is no taller mountain between them to obstruct the sight.
But how is it that they were equal in height? Today the height of Himalaya is feet while that of Vindhya is only feet. So there is no match at all. Then why the wise author Valmiki said so? The modern geologists say that the Himalaya is increasing in height at the rate of 3 feet in hundred years, because the upper crust of the earth is moving northwards from Bengal.
In the remote past there was sea at the site of the Himalaya as is proved by the modern science by examination of fossils. If this is true, then in the remote past the Himalaya must have been much smaller. We can calculate when the Himalaya would have been only feet in height. At the rate of 3 ft in years we get that 8 lacs and one thousand years ago the Himalaya would have been only ft.
So Valmiki must have written this statement 8 Iaes and one thousand years ago. But we have seen above that other evidences do not support this date. Even then I have stated this for future scholars to work on. Now we have considered so many evidences and from them it appears that the Ramayana must have taken place at years B. Now in the next two essays I shall pin-point the exact date of Rama's birth and marriage.
But this is a misbelief. Valmiki has given all the details which we do not understand. This is our fault but we blame Valmiki. Let us s v ee how nicely Valmiki has given the time-table or diary of- a certain period of Rama's life. Demons were destroying the Yajnas of Visvamitra. So he approached Dasaratha to seek Rama's help. He said "Give me your Rama for only ten days. He will protect my Yajna and I will teach him weaponry. On the first night they stayed on the Southern bank of river Sarayu. On the second night they stayed at the confluence of Bhagirathi and Sarayu.
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On the third day they crossed Ganga and 85 entered Tataka Forest. This forest was crowded with big trees. Inspite of this fact when Tataka came on the scene, there was a dust storm, producing a cloud of dust. This dust storm indicates that it was Spring or Summer. Yajnas were usually performed in Spring - Vasanta Rtu.
Dasaratha had done his Asvamedha in Spring Bal. It is possible only in Spring or Summer to have a dust-storm. So it is quite clear that Rama killed Tataka in the Spring. Visvamitra had performed a Yajna once but it was destroyed by demons so he thought of another Yajna. This indicates that the first Yajna was at the beginning of the Spring The Date of the Ramayana h37 while the second Yajna was alleasl a fortnight later.
As the first fortnight was over, the second Yajna must have been arranged somewhere in early March. After the death of Tataka on the fourth day of Rama's departure from his house, Visvamitra taught him the use of weapons and entered Siddhasraina Bal. In this Siddhashrama, Visvamitra conducted his Yajna for six days. Rama also protected this Yajna for six days and nights, without sleep. Anidram Sadahoratram Tapovanam Araksatam. The sixth day was the last and was very important. On this sixth day Rama killed Subahu when Maricha ran away and 88 the Yajna was completed.
We will take the end of Visvamitra's Yajna on Pratipada because there was an attack by demons and some time must have been wasted in that tension. Let us now see which was this Pratipada? The next morning, that is on Dwitiya, Rama went to Visvamitra who told Rama about Janaka's Yajna and requested him to accompany him to Janaka. They loaded the luggage in one hundred carts and left for meeting Janaka. On Trtiya in the evening they halted at Shona Shore. Visvamitra told many historic events to Rama till midnight. At midnight when the Moon rose, they went to bed.
At that time there was no movement of even the tree-leaves. All the birds and 91 beasts were fast asleep. We have seen that it was a later part of Vasanta and naturally it was March-April. Thus it is confirmed that it was Krsna Trtiya of March-April. This was Chaturthi day. In the afternoon they reached Jahnavi 95 Shore and halted there. They crossed Ganga and entered 95 Visala to take rest at night. On the way they met Ahalya and without a halt they proceeded onwards to reach Mithila at evening. This was the Sasthi day.
King Janaka visited them for a while, when he said that only 96 twelve days were remaining to complete his Yajna. Janaka promised to meet them the next day and retired. Rama broke the 6iva-bow and won Seeta. Janaka promised to offer Seeta in marriage to Rama and sent a message to Dasaratha accordingly. The messengers took three night halts on their way and 99 reached Ayodhya. Naturally this was Dasami. Dasaratha was very glad to hear the news and ordered to arrange 99 to leave for Mithila the very next morning. The next morning i.
He spent four nights on the way. This statement clearly shows that Suddha Pratipada was the end of his Yajna. Mention of the remaining twelve days by Janaka on Kfsna Sasthi appears to be true in this context. The tradition of Katyayana G. Hence our line of thinking is also correct. Hearing the talk between Janaka and Dasaratha all of them became happy and they spent that night merrily. This was Amavasya night.
Kusadhvaja came on the same day because his city was nearby. On the same day of Pratipada, Janaka invited Dasaratha, who was already in Mithila. On the third day, on Uttara Phalguni, we shall perform the marriage, Bal. So that was the Lunar month of Bhadrapada. Please note that there was no tradition then to avoid marriages in Bhadrapada. Dharmasastra has not prohibited marriages in Bhadrapada anywhere.
This tradition is of recent origin and is limited to a certain part of India in Brahmins. Hence Rama's marriage in Bhadrapada shows remote antiquity of both Rama and the composition of the Ramayana by Valmiki. This antiquity reaches the Rgvedic age because Surya's marriage with Asvinau is narrated in the Rgveda where it is told that on Agha Magha Naksatra the promise was given and on Phalguni Naksatra the actual marriage took place.
The marriage ceremony was performed in the morning of Bhadrapada Suddha Trtiya. The very next day, Rama started towards Ayodhya with Dasaralha and family. On their way, suddenly, there occurred a fierce storm of dust.
How old are Ramayan and Mahabharata?
Such dust storms do occur in April. As this was the end of the Spring, we have to take this as April. We have already seen from Krsna Trtiya with late-night Moon-rise, that it was the month of April. Here it is confirmed again. It is also clear that it was the Lunar month of Bhadrapada and the Sun was on Magha, from Janaka's statement from Ramayana. In the modern era in April, the Sun is seen in Revati. Thus it is evident that the Sun has shifted backwards by ten Naksalras.
This shift is due to the Precession of Equinoxes which has a rate of years per Naksatra. So a shift of ten Naksatras indicates that Ramayana era must have occured about years ago. This date also gives the same period of years ago. The seasons shift by one month in two thousand years. Today the rainy season starts in Jyestha.
Kalidasa has mentioned Asadha as the beginning of rainy season. One month's shift is evident so Kalidasa is two thousand years old. This is accepted by all the historians. So the Astronomical evidence is correct. It may please be noted that 21 s ' June is the beginning of rainy season for the whole of India as seen by the recent reports of observatories and Meteorological office. Valmiki mentions rainy season in Asvina.
So the shift is by five months from Jyestha to Asvina and therefore Valmiki must have existed about 10, years back. Rama and his brothers were born in Chaitra Bal. So Chaitra must be in Hcmanta while Vasania must be in Asadha. Here we must discard the idea of twelve months pregnancy period,' 06 which is an impossibility in case of all the three ladies.
It is a later insertion by a person who got confused to see Chaitra in Hemanta Rtu. The same person inserted Sravana as rainy season. But all other evidences show that it is not the original work of Valmiki. It is calculated that this insertion was made about years ago, when the rainy seaon used to start in the month of Sravana. From Valmiki's statements and data, we can clearly see that both Valmiki and Rama existed around to years B. Even after completion of this article, in May ,1 was doing research in this field continuously.
I also proved that Rama was to be coronated on 29 th November B. I have proved that it was Thursday as is said by Seeta and recorded by Valmiki in his famous Ramayana. I have proved that he had completed 17 years of age then. By other evidences I have proved that Seeta was in Rama's house for 'Dwadasa Masa' Apparently it is taken as twelve months, but that is a mistake.
If Seeta lived in Rama's house for twelve months and left the house in Chaitra, she should have been married in Chaitra month. But we have seen that she married in Bhadrapada on Suddha Tftiya day. So we have to fix 42b The Scientific Dating of the Ramayana and the Vedas the exact period of her stay in Rama's house after wedding. Dale of exile of Sccta in the forest is fixed as 29 lh November B.
One year was definitely completed. So the date of wedding must be prior to 29 lh November B. Let us go systematically on Astronomical basis. This Amavasya took place at or in Aslesa Naksatra. Hence 4 th April B. The next day 5 th April B. On further calculations it seems to be Friday. Thus, the date of Rama - Seeta - marriage is fixed as 7' h April B. Let us tally the date by another method. It is well known that Equinoxes slide back at the rate of i in 72 years.
Hence for a shift of , it must have taken years. The Sun was in Aslesa on 4 lh April B. The Moon travelled in three days from Aslesa to Uttara Phalguni. In Ramayana 'Dwadasa Sama is the period given.
Ramayana Scientific Dating Wrong?
Usually Dwadasa is taken as twelve, but it can mean twenty as well. Two tens means twenty. Even today ladies from the rural areas use the word 'two lens' for twenty. Ramayana quotes Vedic Deities all over. So its period is the same as Rgveda. Here 'Dwa' means 'two'. The same meaning is taken in the Ramayana too. Hence it is clear that 'Dwadasa' meant 'Twenty' in the ancient era.
So we have to accept it. Thus it is seen that Valmiki has written correct data, as if a diary is written. From this account we can calculate the dates and days precisely as shown in the chart on the next page. This proves that whatever Valmiki wrote is true to the facts. It also proves that Valmiki was a contemporary of Rama. Astronomy was well advanced then and Yajnas were based on Astronomy. So all the Brahmins knew it very well. That is why Valmiki could give all the details of Visvamitra's Yajna.
Whenever Brahmins came into picture, time factor was established nicely. Other events from Rama's life cannot be pinpointed because Rama was not well versed with Astronomy as Valmiki or - Visvamitra. Taking the base of 16 lh October B. I calculated backwards to find the birth-date of Rama. Astronomical positions on Rama's birth-day as given in the Ramayana are as follows: Chaitra Suddha Navami, Punarvasu Naksatra i. Geminorium and five planets were in exalted positions. The exalted positions of these are as follows: Venus in Pisces at Our job is to find out the date when these planets were in the said positions or near about.
Sun, Mars and Venus are fast moving planets and are therefore not useful in calculations of thousands of years. However they are useful to finalise the month and the date. Jupiter, Saturn ana Rahu Dragon's Head are very useful. Out of these two are mentioned with positions by Valmiki, but he has not given the position of Rahu. It is difficult to fix the date with only two planets. We need at least three. So we have to find out Rahu's position.
This talk was in the month of Chaitra, so the Sun was in Aries. So Dasaratha's Naksatra was in Aries. Rama had completed 17 years m when his coronation was proposed. By various calculations I have found out that at B. We have to find out planetary positions years before B. In years it completes Saturn has gone So Saturn must have been at So Saturn was at Jupiter takes 1 1. During years it will complete Jupiter has gone back by This comes to This is the position of exaltation in Cancer. In years it will complete So Mars was This is near the exalted position of in Capricorn.
Rahu completes one rotation in Rahu was at on 16 th October, B. Rahu always travels in the reverse direction. As we have to go in the past, we have to add The Date of the Ramayana b47 Let us now see the position of the Sun. It was Chailra month so the Sun was in Aries. When Rama left for forest life in the month of Chailra, on Suddha 9' day, Valmiki has described the sky with constellations like Trisanku, Saplarsi, Hasla.
This is a clear picture of the sky of Lunar month Chaitra. Hence in that era Chaitra coincided with Hemanta or Winter season. Today this sky is seen in summer in the month of April-May. This change is due to the Precession of Equinoxes. The Mathematics behind it shows that the writer of this description must have been living at least ten thousand years ago. We will support this by other method. We take 22 December as the end of Hemanta. Today the Sun is at on nd 22 December. The Equinoxes move back by So 15 was the position of the Sun on 22 nd December year B.
This comes in Aries and near the exalted place of Sun So whatever Valmiki has written is absolutely correct. It is quite natural. So we have five planets in the exalted states in December B. Above we have seen October positions, in December they will be thus - Jupiter As this is in line with Valmiki's description, Rama must have been born in December, B. Some Scholars try to twist this statement and try to establish that Rama was 27 years old when he left for the forest.
This is because Seeta says to Ravana that she spent twelve years in Rama's house before entering the forest. Sarga 33, Shloka 17, it is told that Seeta enjoyed all the pleasures at Rama's house for twelve years and then in the thirteenth year the King thought of coronating Rama. So it appears that Rama got married at the age of five years only and was to be coronated at the age of six years only. If it was so. Definitely five years or less and if she was really seven years younger than Rama, as she told to Ravana, then she was minus two years old, which means she was not only unborn, but was not even in the womb, when married.
Then how could she enjoy all the pleasures? As there is contradiction in the statements we must examine the text, test it and see which is corret. This is impossible because she herself lolls that her father was very anxious about her marriage as she had entered the age for contact with the husband. Further it is stated that before Rama married Seeta, many kings had campaigned against Janaka to take Seeta away.
Can there be battles for a six year old daughter 7 Impossible. So Seeta must have attained puberty when she got married. Therefore, that marriage is called as 'Swayamvara. She was in her full youth, so after marriage she enjoyed all the pleasures with her husband in a separate room in privacy. Rahas - to Before the marriage of Rama he was invited by Visvamitra to protect his Yajna. At that time Dasaratha said that his Rama was only a quarter to sixteen years old.
About a month later Rama married Seeta. Hence it is impossible to accept that Rama married at the age of five years. Considering all these evidences I think that twelve years married life is an interpolation and we should not believe in it. Garecio edition of the Ramayana states that Rama was eighteen years old at, the time of exile. If Seeta was an adult at the time of marriage and if she had stayed with Rama and enjoyed the married life for 12 years why did she not have any child during 12 years?
It is quite probable that one couple may not get a child in 12 years of married life. But alongwith Seeta her three sisters married the three brothers of Rama and they, too, enjoyed marital bliss for 12 years. Then why did none of these four couples have a child in the span of 12 years? All the four couples remaining childless for 12 years of married life is an impossibility. There is no problem about the stars, but we have to calculate the positions of Mars and Jupiter, We have to see how much they travelled in 17 years after Rama's birth.
Jupiter completes its one round in 1 1. So in 17 years it must have completed 1. So Jupiter was at In 17 years it will travel 9. Dasaratha says that Mars was in his Naksatra along with Sun and Rahu and that is why he was in a hurry to coronate Rama. The Sun was in Aries as the month was Chaitra. So Dasaratha's Naksatra must be in Aries. Mars from Dhanistha casts its fourth aspect on Aries malefically.
So our position of Mars is correct according to Dasratha's statement. Now we shall again see the map of the sky. If you stand facing the South, you will see the setting Moon behind your right shoulder. In front, to the right hand you will see Crux or Trisanku. If these stars and planets are plotted on a map you will see that these are really cornering the Moon at the northern limit of the West. So Valmiki's description is marvellously correct, and our estimated year B. Let us see now, if Valmiki's statement about Rahu is correct. With the rale of That means Rahu had gone back by So Rahu was at in Visakha or Librae.
Mars imprisoned Rohini Thus astronomically as well as astrologically Valmiki has given accurate positions. The height of Valmiki's accuracy is seen when he mentions the position of Mars after 14 years' period of forest-life. These similes show that Valmiki had seen Mars marching towards Rohini and then occupying a place between the two limbs of Rohini, as if a guard is posted at the gate. Rohini Sakata Bheda On calculation it is seen that two months before completion of 14 years' period, Mars was in Mrga Orion just beyond Rohini and Mars was retrograde then.
So Valmiki must have seen Mars marching towards Rohini. This Rohini Sakata Bheda was in reality about to years ago and has never happened again to this , So we will have to calculate the movement of Mars during 13 years and 10 months or Mars had travelled ahead of its original position of ". Thus Mars was at 63 in Mrga, or just beyond Rohini, Therefore a month earlier. Valmiki must have seen Mars marching towards Rohini, crossing it and staying in between the two arms of Rohini. Mars was showing to and fro movements just like a sentry.
Dating of Ramayana | Nilesh Nilkanth Oak
Thus a poetic simile of Valmiki has got a great scientific value, because it is based on the pure Truth, the Reality. Now, let us test if Valmiki is correct in showing the Mars retrograde. Hence it is clear that Mars had become retrograde in Mrga Naksatra and therefore it was seen marching towards Rohini. It is well known in Astronomy that if Mars is ahead or behind the Sun, it becomes retrograde. We have seen that the planetary positions of Rama's birthday, in B. So it is not a mere chance. These must be the real dales of Rama's birth and other incidents. Let us, now, try to fix the exact dates of various events.
This means the 9 day after New-Moon-day or Amavasya. So every Solar year the Amavasya comes As the Sun travels one degree per day, the place of Amavasya or conjugation of Sun and Moon, slides From here, let us go back to B. Amavasya slides back by Please note that we are going back in the past so the Amavasya will slide forwards by This is to be divided by This means 54 Lunar years were completed and 0.
Where was this Amavasya? Let us find out. We have seen that Amavasya slides by On 16 th October B. Amavasya took place at ' in Uttara Asadha. In years, it shifted by This means that 53 cycles were completed and 0. We are going into the past, so we add 95 and and get as the site of Amavasya of 25 lh November B. Hence the next month was Chaitra and on its 9th day there could have been Punarvasu Naksatra, the dale being 4 th December B.
The Moon travels 12 degrees in one Tithi. When eight Tilhis were completed , the Moon must have gone 96 ahead of which means it was at 89 i. Hence Rama's birthdate is fixed as 4th December B. Naturally the birth date of Bharata is 5 th December B. Laxmana and Salrughna were born on Sarpa Naksatra i. Aslesa and Kulira Lagna.
At the end of 14 years, when Rama fought his final battle with Ravana, Vaimiki slates that the Mars was aspecling 1 1 9 Visakha, the family Naksatra of Rama Iksvaku The war he is referring to is the one that famously lasted for 18 days, the greatest of all wars. He switches on his laptop, clicks on Stellarium , a planetarium software that simulates the sky in 3D, feeds in some data, and soon we are staring at a configuration on the screen which looks like the night sky with stars glittering on it.
This is the sky just before the Battle of Kurukshetra, according to Bhatnagar, an astronomer who has spent the years since his retirement— as additional director general from the Positional Astronomy Centre of the Indian Meteorological Department—extracting astronomical references from the Mahabharata.
By tracing the winter solstice and the autumnal equinox indicated in the text, he has found a time bracket of 1, years. He then looked for eclipses within that period, and one by one, he says, it all fell into place. In support of his hypothesis, he cites research by veteran geologist KS Valdiya, author of Saraswati: The River That Disappeared , on paleoseismic activity in the lower Himalayas to trace the approximate time of the Mahabharata. There exists a long tradition of astronomical dating of Indian epics done by studying celestial events like eclipses, comets, and planetary positions mentioned in texts , some by scholars, and now with easily available software packages, increasingly by amateurs.
A quick search on the internet would have you believe that astronomy has already proved the veracity of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, with countless websites carrying contradictory data. But consensus is hard to find. Take the case of the discrepant dating that astronomy throws up for the Mahabharata. Another veteran researcher in the field, Narhari Achar, a professor of Physics at the University of Memphis, backs the more popularly accepted date, BCE.
Deeper study of the original texts would help. The problem of dating the Ramayana and Mahabharata is a difficult one, as the texts are syncretic and accretive. The dates recreated by astronomy software cannot be taken as definitive since we do not know whether the verse being dated was part the original core or if it was added later, says Subhash Kak, who teaches at the department of electric and computer engineering at Louisiana State University, and has worked on the history of Indian science. The way a poetic description of an astral event in the verses is interpreted is subjective and it lacks scholarly agreement.
The quest to prove the historicity of the epics by dating them affirmatively is an old pursuit. It is also a politically fraught subject that has been making recurrent headlines. According to a recent news report, the ICHR will soon be taking up research projects on new approaches to writing ancient Indian history based on Sanskrit texts, and revisiting the theme of Aryan immigration into India. It is clear that the epic dating enterprise will be getting a fillip in times to come. Beyond the political battleground, if you take a popular vote on this subject, it will show up the duality that the Indian mind is so at ease with: Generations of researchers have combined the study of the two texts with data from astronomy, archaeology and paleogeography.
The field has been widened to include genetic studies and natural sciences, but to little or no avail. We are far from any unanimous agreement, except for concurring that the Vedas predate the Ramayana, which came before the Mahabharata. There are people, however, who are committed to delving deeper for answers by applying imaginative cross-disciplinary ways of thinking and analysis to the epics. He has been conducting genetic studies on the tribes of the Ramayana. In the first part of the project that lasted for three years, he studied the gene pool of the three main tribes mentioned in the epic, Bhil, Kol and Gond, to establish their continuity since ancient times with contemporary tribal and caste populations of the Indian Subcontinent.
We know that Indian mythological sources might have preserved information about prehistoric peopling as well as past societal structure. And we use this information and look into the human genome DNA , which preserves information back several generations. The Ramayana project is ongoing, and the plan for the next phase is to collect DNA samples from communities that claim direct lineage from Rama and then look for a consensus result—if any—that traces his male descent via the Y chromosomal haplogroup.
Chaubey also speaks of how his growing up years in Varanasi gave him a firm grounding in mythological texts and sources, which he now applies to research. He is extending the same analysis to the Mahabharata. She turned to botany and zoology to establish the historicity of the Ramayana. Two life scientists from the institute, P Sudhakar and M Amirthalingam studied the plants and animals of the Ramayana. The idea for this research came to her while on a visit to Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh, where she saw a painting of a tiger and a lion together.